If you arrived here by any means other than from of the Index of Impacts,
 it is suggested that you start at the Introduction to gain an understanding of what follows.

The making of the Strait of Gibraltar

      The Strait of Gibraltar was formed by two meteor impacts. The first blasted the round area in the western Mediterranean Sea to form a land bridge between Spain and Morocco. This 'crater' can be easily seen in the image above as the circular land forms around the western end of the Mediterranean. In reality, calling this a crater is a bit of a stretch, as the maximum height of the surrounding mountains is about 2,000 meters (2 km), and the inner circle, where the land meets the sea is about 165 kilometers in diameter. So while it may look something like a crater, it is pretty well flattened out.

     This image depicting the outer limits of the crater at about 330 kilometers in diameter. It also shows by the yellow arrows, a seismic line that passes through the Strait of Gibraltar. It appears that this seismic wave cracked the land bridge sufficiently to cause the water to flow between the ocean and the sea.
       The meteor impact that caused this seismic shock wave is located off the north coast of Spain and is further depicted below. 
     Geologists estimate that the connection between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea was closed about 5.9 million years ago. This resulted in the Mediterranean Sea evaporating and leaving layers of mineral salt deposits on the sea floor. This lasted 500,000 to 600,000 years when the strait of Gibraltar opened again and caused the Atlantic Ocean to refill the Mediterranean Sea. This water flow would have easily eroded the crack made by the seismic event to widen it to what we have today. Now the waters flow in both directions, likely the result of the lunar pull that creates the tides.

      The most obvious seismic circle from this impact is at about 88 kilometers radius from the center of impact. It describes the coast line of the western Mediterranean Sea.

     Of particular importance is the Rock of Gibraltar, on the 88 km line.

Geologists have shown that the oldest material is on top with younger material below. It appears that the Rock of Gibraltar was uplifted and overturned from below. Then erosion washed the west side, down to a cap rock. The impact produces a number of other formations similar to this, as will be shown below in the video.

     The Vredefort Crater, southwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, shows similarities to the Gibraltar Crater.
The rippled edge to the northwest is similar to the rippled edge to the southwest of the Gibraltar impact.

     The rippeling on the Vredefort Crater is similar to the overturning of the Rock of Gibraltar.

Rayleign Wave motion explains the formation of the Rock of Gobraltar.
     This seems to be the work of a Rayleigh wave. While the surface wave expands in a horizontal circle across the land, the material under the surface moves in a vertical circular motion. In the water, a particle of water moves in a vertical circular path, ending up where it began. On the Earth, when the Rayleigh wave hits an area of hard rock, the rock is broken along the horizontal lines of the surface wave, and the hard rock is rotated vertically to make these formations.

     One of the more significant seismic circles is this one at 115 kilometers radius. It appears that the meteor came in from the East northeast. This image is linked to a much larger image for a more detailed examination. This circle is also shown in the video below.

      The video demonstrates the geography and geology of the circle, and the many ways man has made use of these formations. This includes Wind Power, Solar, Water Resource development, including Hydroelectric Power, Mineral Excavations, Roads, Marina, and More.  Running time is almost 9 minutes.

The above image is part of the 115 kilometer radius seismic circle.This circle is shown in the video below, which shows far more detail than can be shown in still images alone.




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     It appears here that the Gibraltar Impact was also responsible for the formation of a part of the Mid Atlantic Ridge, as this concentric circle, 2115 kilometers from the center of impact, follows the ridge precisely for over 950 kilometers.

     The Mid Atlantic Ridge just to the south of this is described by a perfect circle centered on the Cape Verde Islands.

      Other geographic phenomenon which precisely follow the expanding circle line have been seen at 3990, 6840, and 9535 kilometers radius.

     To the East northeast, the Drina River that forms the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia follows the line through the mountains.

     In Albania to the west, a ridge line was formed just outside the 2115 kilometer radius line, as farther indication of the significance of this impact.

The images above are depictions of the 800 kilometer seismic circle from a meteor impact off the North coast of Spain, that broke the land bridge between Spain and Morocco, allowing the Atlantic Ocean to flow through to the Mediterranean Sea, forming the Strait of Gibraltar. This event was know as the Zanclean flood, and happened about 5.33 million years ago.

     Here, the seismic line that broke the land bridge is shown by the yellow arrows.

     To the Northeast, the same 800 kilometer radius circle line describes the coastline of France.
Index of Impact Sites
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© 2013 Terry Westerman